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MENDEL is a set of Fortran 77 routines for the genetic analysis of human pedigree data. Its use is well established for segregation analysis, linkage calculations and genetic counseling. A detailed description of the algorithms is provided in Lange et al, 1988. Users can also consult other papers by Lange and colleagues (Lange and Elston 1975; Lange and Boehnke, 1983; Lange and Goradia, 1987; Goradia et al, 1992) for the theoretical background.

Cyrillic incorporates a version of MENDEL which performs likelihood calculations for conditions with age-dependent penetrance. MENDEL automatically handles both inbreeding and monozygous twinning.

As standard, Cyrillic is provided with penetrance tables for predisposition to breast/ovarian cancer based on Claus population frequencies (Claus et al, 1996). It is however possible to input one’s own population data (penetrances, prior probabilities of genotypes), and to use MENDEL for other disorders. An option to use the Gompertz function for penetrances as an alternative to penetrance tables.

Examples for using MENDEL are provided in the Cyrillic manual. The Help files also contain more information.

Cyrillic uses the version of MENDEL developed by Ken Lange and colleagues.  The developer  assumes no legal liability for use of the software or algorithms.


Claus et al. The genetic attributable risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Cancer 1996;77:2318-2324.

bulletGoradia et al. Fast computation of genetic likelihoods on human pedigree data. Hum Hered 1992;42:42-62.
bulletLange et al. Programs for pedigree analysis: MENDEL, FISHER, and dGENE. Genet Epid 1988;5:471-472.
bulletLange K, Elston RC. Extension to pedigree analysis. I. Likelihood calculations for simple and complex pedigrees. Hum Hered 1975;25:95-105.
bulletLange K, Boehnke M. Extensions to pedigree analysis. V. Optimal calculation of Mendelian likelihoods. Hum Hered 1983;33:291-303.
bulletLange K, Goradia TM. An algorithm for automatic genotype elimination. Am J Hum Genet 1987;40:250-256.

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